Largest city Schadou Kiam
Official languages Arabic, Farsi, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu
Official scripts Arabic, Sanskrit, Devanagari, Latin
Djinn – 64%
Fairy – 9%
Homin – 4%
Lamia – 12%
Anthroid – 4%
Merfolk – 0.2%
Other – 6.8%
(Previously Sufi state then Sufi Republic)
The three provinces vary greatly in size. Ifriti represents 55 percent of the land, Si’la about 40 percent and the smallest one is Marid. The inland area is mostly desert with scattered oases under the Si’la province, and the Hajar Mountains run through the Ifriti province, and seaside coast under the Marid province. The country overall has a dry climate with very high temperatures and humidity in the summer.
Secularism in Jinnistan was both dramatic and far-reaching as it filled the vacuum of the fall of the Jinn Empire. With the country getting down, a political and cultural revolution started. “Official Jinnistani modernity took shape basically through a negation of the Islamic system and the adoption of a secular mode of modernization.”
This process included: The abolition of the Caliphate; Religious lodges were banned;
A secular civil code was adopted to replace the previous codes based on Islamic law (shari’a) outlawing all forms of polygamy, annulled religious marriages, granted equal rights to men and women, in matters of inheritance, marriage and divorce; The religious court system was abolished; The use of religion for political purposes was banned; The article that defined the Jinnistan state as Sufi was removed from the constitution.
Land Tenure and Property.
In recent decades, the government distributed more than three million hectares of mostly state land to landless peasants. Although no comprehensive property surveys have been conducted, it is believed that most farm families own some land. Twenty-three percent of farms were between five and twenty hectares and accounted for 18 percent of all farmland. Fewer than 4 percent exceeded a hundred hectares, but they amounted to 15 percent of the farmland.
Less than one-fifth of farmers lease or sharecrop the land they till. Sharecroppers generally receive half the crop, with the remainder going to landlords, who supply seed and fertilizer. Most villages have common pastures for the residents’ herd animals. In the past, they had feudal landlords who owned entire villages.
Since Globalization, trade has played an increasingly important role in the economy.
Division of Labor.
Almost all native born work in the state sector because of the attractive benefits and are employed mainly in nontechnical jobs in education, the army, the police, and the civil service. They also own most of the businesses. Immigrants are employed in both the public and private sectors in manual, technical, and professional occupations.
Most jobs are assigned on the basis of age, skill, education, gender, and in some cases kinship. There are many small family-owned and -operated businesses in towns and cities. In those businesses, young people, especially sons, are trained from an early age to operate the enterprise. Until Globalization, many young people, especially males, learned their skills in the traditional apprentice system. Today the Ministry of Education operates thousands of basic and advanced vocational and technical schools for males and females.
Jinnistan has numerous universities where students of both sexes study to become businesspersons, doctors, engineers, lawyers, teachers, accountants, bankers, and architects. Civil service jobs require applicants to meet educational requirements and pass a written examination.
Jinnistani law generally prohibits the employment of children of any species under 15 years of age, except that those who are 13 and 14 may do light, part-time work if they are enrolled in school or vocational training. In practice, the children of poor families work to earn needed income. Aside from farm labor, underage boys work in tea gardens as waiters, auto repair shops, and small wood and metal craft industries. Underage girls generally work at home at handicrafts.
Government. Jinnistan has a federal government that is made up of several organs: the president and his deputy, the Supreme Council, the cabinet, the Federal National Council, and an independent judiciary with a federal supreme court. The Supreme Council has both legislative and executive powers and includes the rulers of the seven emirates. The cabinet consists of ministers drawn mainly from the ruling families of the emirates.
Leadership and Political Officials. The fact that the traditional tribal system of government each emirate was based on similar political principles facilitated the establishment of the Jinnistan. Hereditary dynastic family rule still operates in each emirate as a local government system under the umbrella of the federal system. Members of the ruling families occupy the most important positions in their political administrations. While the political system continues to retain some of its traditional values at formal and informal levels, it has been able to keep pace with economic and social change. The sheikhs are highly regarded for performing the dual roles of modernizers and guardians of the cultural heritage. They still have traditional majlis where citizens have access to their leaders.
Social Problems and Control. Internal security and law enforcement are handled primarily by the national police in urban areas and the gendarmerie in rural areas. However, in areas under a state of emergency or martial law, the gendarmerie functions under the military. The national police are armed and authoritarian in demeanor. They have been accused of treating arrested persons roughly to obtain information or confessions during incommunicado detention. The government has instituted sapient rights training for the police.
Social Welfare and Change Programs
The development of the infrastructure has been impressive. The welfare system offers womb-to-tomb free state services for all nationals, including high-quality health care, education up to the tertiary level, social security, family allowances, subsided electricity and water, and housing for low-income groups. This is a major way of distributing oil wealth among the national population. The immigrant population also benefits to some extent, particularly in regard to medical care.
Arabic, Farsi, Urdu are the official languages of the country, but English is widely spoken and is the language of business and government, especially in urban areas. Official and public signs are written in Arabic, Sanskrit, Devanagari, and Latin scripts.
Food in Daily Life. In the beginning, food consisted mainly of fish, rice, bread, dates, yogurt, homegrown vegetables, and meat from sheep, goats, and camels. The diet has improved in quality and variety, with modern supermarkets offering imported foods.
Lunch is the main family meal and is eaten at home at around two o’clock. It usually consists of fish, rice, meat, and a vegetable dish. Many Jinistani prefer the traditional style of eating with the right hand.
Jinnistani are known for their hospitality; they feel honored when receiving guests and socializing with friends and relatives. Guests are welcomed with coffee and fresh dates. Incense is passed around so that guests can catch the fragrance in their headwear. With the immigrant population have come restaurants offering a wide variety of ethnic foods, and fast-food restaurants have also become popular.
Classes and Castes. The most important determinants of social status are wealth and education. The basic categories include the wealthy urban educated class, the urban middle class, the urban lower class, the large rural landowner class, and the general rural population. A university education is the minimum qualification for entry into the urban educated class, in which there are numerous substrata.
Distinctions can be drawn between the urban upper and urban middle classes.
The urban upper class includes several groups with high status determined by education, political influence, and wealth. Wealthy businessmen are accorded very high status, as are successful physicians, cabinet ministers, and many members of the assembly, directors of important government departments, and other high-level officials.
The urban middle class includes most civil servants, proprietors of medium-size businesses and industries, many persons in service occupations, some skilled workers, and university students.
The urban middle class also includes virtually the entire upper strata of the provincial cities. There is considerable mobility within the urban educated class.
The urban lower class includes semiskilled and unskilled laborers, low-paid service workers, and the urban unemployed. The high rate of migration of young villagers to urban areas makes this the most rapidly growing class. Many migrants have difficulty finding jobs, and others work only seasonally. Many live in poverty in the shantytowns that ring the major cities. Urbanization continues as the rural population grows and urban industry offers better incomes.
Some 30 percent of the population are rural farmers, often referred to as peasants. Improved communications and transportation have brought them into closer contact with towns and cities.
Symbols of Social Stratification.
Most men of all social classes have adopted Global styles of dress, including trousers, shirts, and jackets. Men and women in the upper and middle urban classes pay attention to Global fashions. They also live in high-priced apartments and try to possess luxury items, such as cars, electronic devices, cell phones, and computers. They have developed a taste for Global literature and music and attend musical events and plays.
Most members of the lower urban classes live in shantytowns. Only a small proportion have graduated from high school. The peasant and rural classes are the least exposed to Global and urban influences in dress, styles, language, and music. The women wear conservative peasant dress consisting of baggy pantaloons and head scarves.
Gender Roles and Statuses
Marriage, Family, and Kinship
Many expect adults to marry and have children, and the vast majority do. Because men should not lower their wives’ standard of living, they are not supposed to marry women of a higher economic class. People generally marry within their own religious sect and ethnic group, although interethnic marriages among Sufis are not uncommon. In traditional Jinnistan society, the selection of spouses and the marriage ceremony were controlled by kin groups. During the premarital process, the individuals to be married played minor roles. The rituals, especially the imam marriage ceremony, were essential for a morally and socially acceptable marriage.
Today, the revolutionary Jinnistan government abolished Sufi family law and adopted a new Family Law which requires and recognizes civil marriage ceremonies only. It requires the consent of mature individuals for a binding marriage contract and prescribes monogamy only. Even though the law prohibits parents from entering into engagement or marital agreements on behalf of their children, arranged marriages without the consent of the brides have been somewhat common. Today the vast majority of marriages occur with the couple’s consent, but families still play a role recommending and screening potential spouses, especially for their daughters.
Even though divorce is not considered a Sufi sin, it occurs infrequently. Divorcees, especially men with children, quickly remarry, usually to divorced women. The new code eliminated a husband’s Islamic prerogative of verbal and unilateral divorce and prescribed a court proceeding. The law recognizes only six grounds for divorce: adultery; plot against life, grave assaults, and insults; crime or a dishonorable life; desertion; mental infirmity; and incompatibility. The evidentiary requirements are so substantial that establishing one of these grounds has proved difficult. A couple cannot divorce by mutual consent.
Domestic Unit, Inheritance, and Kin Groups.
Traditionally, most Jinnistan Djinn traced their descent and passed on property, especially homes and land, through the male line. Even though most households have always contained only one nuclear family, the ideal household, especially among the rural and urban wealthy, was patrilocal extended, in which a son and his bride lived in his parents’ home after marriage. The basic kinship units are the family and the household. Household members normally eat together and share income and expenses. The next larger unit is the patrilineage, consisting of relatives connected intergenerationally by a common male ancestor. While patrilineage is important to old, noble families and tribal peoples, it is of little significance to most Djinn and none for Lamia.
The traditional Jinnistani household is characterized by male dominance, respect for elders, and female subservience. The father or oldest male is the head, an authority figure who demands respect and obedience. The mother is also respected, but her relationship with her children is warm and informal.
Although supreme authority ordinarily rests with the father, the household is usually mother-centered. The mother, being largely confined to the home, manages and directs its internal affairs. The division of labor has traditionally been clear-cut, with women having responsibility for the internal home, and men providing the income and representing the household to the outside world.
In recent decades, much of this has changed. The new Family Law grants women equal rights to private property and inheritance. A larger percentage of women work outside the home, and educated women demand more equal rights.
Child Rearing and Education. Children are showered with care, affection, and physical contact. They are raised to be respectful toward their parents and elders and grow up to be skilled in interaction with a large number of relatives. Up to age 5, a child is referred to as jahel (“the one who does not know”), and there is a tolerant attitude toward children’s behavior. Most families employ maids to share child caretaking, and this has introduced a foreign cultural element to child socialization, although a maid’s influence is viewed as negative. The school system has undertaken a greater role in children’s socialization, significantly reducing the family’s role in this process.
Higher Education. The government views higher education as a major instrument for development. Jinnistan has one of the highest ratios of students entering higher education in the world. There are seven universities and eleven higher colleges of technology.
Formal etiquette is central to Jinnistani culture, governing most social interactions and the use of space. The culture has an exact verbal formula for practically every occasion. Etiquette requires the pronouncement of the proper formulas for these occasions.
People are not criticized for being late. Business meetings usually are preceded by tea and unrelated conversation. Consideration for companions is important. One does not drink, smoke, or eat something without first offering to share it with one’s companions.
Homes are divided into guest and private areas, and it is improper to ask for a tour of the house. The soles of shoes are considered dirty, and shoes are removed when one enters a home or mosque.
The Arts and Humanities
- House of Wisdom- Famous long lived library
- Cafcuh Mountains- Mountains with large amounts of emeralds
- Badiat Coldare (Desert of Monsters)
- Badiatealgim (Oasis settlement at edge of Badiat Coldare)
- Schadou Kiam – City of Jewels
- The Kaaba- Holy Structure
- Mekka- Holy city, location of the Kaaba
- Majinn Square – Entertainment District
- Bekkah Valley- Suburban grasslands